Insecticides are agents of chemical or biological origin used to control insects by; killing them or deterring them from feeding or preventing undesirable or destructive insect behaviour. Insecticides are classified according to the method of application and by the way they enter the insect’s body. Many insecticides take effect in more than one way and target more than one insect.
Are applied on the surface of plants or are added to the bait. The insecticide is eaten along with the food material by insects that chew such as caterpillars.
Are sprayed or dusted on the insect’s body. The poison is absorbed through the body wall. Most soft-bodied insects are vulnerable to contact insecticides.
Are insecticidal gases. Insects that lurk out of reach of sprays are killed when they breathe the gas. In addition, the soil may be fumigated to destroy grubs or wire worms that attack roots.
Are applied to foliage and they have a long lasting effect as they remain on the surface for a longer time. Insects absorb deadly doses by touching the poisoned surface.
Are absorbed by plant tissues, so that when insects feed on the sap they are controlled.
A fungicide is a specific type of pesticide (chemical or biological in origin) that controls fungal disease by inhibiting the growth of fungal spores or killing the fungus causing the disease. Different crops are affected by different fungi. One fungal disease can affect more than one crop, similarly, a crop can be affected by more than one fungal disease Fungicides can be Preventive orCurative or both Preventive and Curative. Fungicides are further categorized into:
Are not taken up into the plant tissue, and protect only the plant where the spray is deposited.
Redistribute the fungicide from the upper, sprayed leaf surface to the lower, unsprayed surface.
Are taken up and redistributed through the xylem vessels. Some are locally systemic, and some move upwardly.
Herbicides are pesticides used to kill or inhibit the growth of unwanted plants (weeds). Commonly known as weed-killers, herbicides are categorized into selective and non-selective. Some of these herbicides act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often synthetic mimics of natural plant hormones. They can be foliage-applied or soil herbicides, pre-emergent or post-emergent.Contact herbicides kill only the plant organs with which they are in contact. Translocated herbicides are effective against roots or other organs, to which they are transported from aboveground treated surfaces (soil).
Kill specific weed targets, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed.
Kill all plant material which they come into contact with.
Plant nutrition refers to the need for basic chemical elements for plant growth and the interrelated steps by which a living organismassimilates food and uses it for growth and replacement of tissue.
What are fertilizers?
Think of fertilizers as plant food. Fertilizers are combination of the nutrients that plants must have to grow, in a form they can use. The primary nutrients in fertilizers are three essential elements: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K), which are often combined into an NPK blend.
(Sulphur, Calcium and Magnesium) are needed in smaller amounts for normal plant growth. Micronutrients are also needed but in even smaller quantities. Micronutrients include Boron, Chlorine, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel and Zinc.